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"The Golden Stairs" (1866), oil on canvas, 277 x 117 cm, the painter Edward Burne-Jones (Tate Gallery, London)


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Hieronymus Bosch Garden of Earthly Delights, 1503-1504, Madrid, Museo del Prado.

Project Mayr

Identity 'of a directory:
If Mayr

Umberto Bartocci
(From the magazine Episteme)

"The following lines are the notes taken at a very interesting conference held in Milan, in the Liberty Palace, Monday 'May 20, 2002. The panel discussion entitled "The Masonic music, identity 'of a repertoire" was organized by Milano Classica and the City of Milan, prof. Claudio Bonvecchio Professor of Philosophy and Social Sciences, University 'Insubria, prof. James Fornari, professor of pedagogy at the Conservatory of Music Professor of Bolzano and Monteverdi. Luca Bianchini, musicologist and composer. In the introduction to Professor. Bianchini has summarized the salient features of the figure of Mayr, stressing the importance of this major Italian opera composer at the turn of 1800, which was a link between Cimarosa and Rossini, who founded 'Charitable Lessons in Bergamo and was Master of Donizetti , author of works, symphonies, oratorios and cantatas and sacred music and sacred 'Her tomb' in the Cathedral of Bergamo and the Bavarian 'considered it a Catholic musician, which this year celebrates the bicentennial of his appointment as Kapellmeister ( 1802 to 2002). The speaker read a message from the Pope, dated May 6, 1963, sent by the Vatican Secretariat of State to the bishop of Regensburg Bishop Rudolf Graber, who defines "worthy of remembrance and commemoration quell'egregio characters (Mayr), which contributes 'not a little to the development of sacred music. " Mayr, Catholic celebrations in other documents, 'as "a man of talent, man kind, good man: a great lover of his country, ornament of religion." Bianchini has raised the question of the identity 'of the composer's repertoire, especially in the sacred. About 'Mayr? Mayr 'Catholic musician? Mayr (code-named Aristotle) ​​in the first three decades of life, and thereafter, as demonstrated by the rapporteur, 'an enlightened state of Bavaria, n' never 'dissociated by the Illuminati. That was one of the enlightened society 'secret subversive, against the' private, against patriotism, against compulsory military service, against the pope, against the religious orders and especially against the Jesuits, who accused him of being precisely the enlightened atheists or even Satanists. The Illuminati fact, according to the books of the Order cited Bianchini, "do not serve a God n 'recognize the revealed religions. Dall'eternit The world exists' and there was a real creation, because' the Books Mos' ​​are pure invention, taken from Egyptian myths. Pythagoras in wisdom than Jesus' Christ, that 'all children of God, but natural son of Joseph. He possessed,' true, faculty 'prominent, showed an excellent heart and noble intentions but could not be God, because '' contrary to reason to be with God and man. His apostles were visionaries and impostors, and there was never true Christianity, no 'true religion. L' where there is a religion and 'considered this state, it should be viewed as a mere custom or better yet the religion of Christians and their sacraments must be eradicated to make way for the Naturalism. " Mayr also religion has a deep bond with Music and Nature, and Nature in Catholicism so that he is confused. In his mind the et 'This seems excessive sin of mysticism and religion is irredeemably corrupt. The reason of the Enlightenment, combined with the hearts of romantics, you can 'return man, in his opinion, the original state of innocence: "The et' nebulosit for this sin 'and mysticism. Even there' not 'good. Art 'always clear. The mist of ignorance are the enemy, like the destructive miasma dell'immoralit.' Short 'the flourishing of human strength. Heart and reason make it, as a common parent. The fruit of one of the two' always a fertilized egg that never come to prosperous life. " Moreover, "the foundation of the music itself 'religious most of his productions' sublime tend to heaven and you can' ask if the objective Music for all men out of time and space is not church music." The church music is not 'one that is played in temples of worship,' then the music itself, that knows how to return simply to imitate the perfection of the original, which at the time of Christ had already 'completely lost: "In the time of the Apostles and of Christ, the music was in full decline. It does not live in a fallen and oppressed people. " Mayr, who was worried with his Catholic works, perhaps because 'denounced his beliefs, as demonstrated by the refusal to publish them, while he was still alive: in the will chose the master Antonio Dolci (1798-1869), who was one of twelve students by Mayr chosen to begin his lessons Charitable, for executor of its provisions, asking him to assist his wife "in the sale of church music where you can find 'an exact catalog - with the condition and without my vote, that whoever' s buyer is in whole or in part can not make any printed piece. " The second Mayr religious spirit "is 'off' in his day and with it," even the poetic inspiration. " Distinguishing a "True Religion" and "a true Catholic [in lowercase in the text]", which "raises the Sub-threshold '," the religious feeling "off" of its day, Mayr prophesies with Lichtenberg, commentator of the drawings of Hogarth, the English painter and ardent nationalist who had great admiration for the composer, that "our world will become 'cos' and lit up, which will be 'ridiculous to believe in a God, what is' today to believe in ghosts. But that will 'then this people without God. " If "this is a scene with horses, cars, etc. with a beautiful dress. But poorly attended, nevertheless, resounding applause intendonsi. The place has everything 'you can' wish for. Streams natural 'forest, and meadow plants and natural hedges - a real lake and ships with sails, a small army of 10,000; apparitions of spirits - Palace in the Air. Theatre 'empty - no one round of applause - the director takes from his pocket a rope and takes root - the future is applauded of pi '. " The music (that 'life) for Mayr' magic: an "all-powerful sorceress sorceress, who speaks in a language intelligible to all areas, now rips tears Wehmuth ... [sadness]." In the clandestine press of Poschiavo, De Bassus, a patron of Mayr and maximum authorities 'illuminated for North Italy (code-named Hannibal), printing the first edition of Goethe's Werther, code-named Abaris in Italian in 1782' and many forbidden books of the Church ... printed by the printer and enlightened Joseph Ambrosioni of Bergamo. Why 'Mayr' celebrated this year in Bergamo as the author of sacred music? The figure of Mayr and his music were exploited during the nineteenth century, because 'enlightened ideology turned out' once scandalous and very uncomfortable, due later in Satanic rituals of Crowley (who owned the origins of the Illuminati of Bavaria). In the biography of Girolamo Calvi 'c''word is not lit and the recent publication of his book n' the curator n 'the author wrote that Mayr' an enlightened, Germany. Indeed 'Mayr wrote that' man 'apolitical'. An apolitical Illuminati !?!?!?!? And now the bicentenary of his appointment as Kapellmeister Mayr as a musician is celebrated reformer of the Chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore. The composer's travels' with De Bassus in Milan, Bergamo and Venice. The Allitt evidence that the musician has shared with his patron contacts with salons, lit with activists and with centers of distribution of illegal and anti-clerical banned books: "In 1789 the Illuminati were well known by the police in Venice. The Archives State of Venice, Envelope No. 225, a dispatch Niccol 'Corner Captain Vice mayor' of Bergamo, contains a statement dated July 29, 1794 to John from Ponte Maironi that hinted at a trip to Bergamo and Venice De Bassus ( no doubt to see Mayr and other clients). De Bassus 'described as a Jacobin ideas, and a member of the sect of the Illuminati and has followers in Lombardy and Veneto,' Hannibal and called that 'something more' than a regular member ".

According to Bianchini, sacred music of Mayr, 'resounded in the cathedral of Bergamo for more' than forty years, expressed ILLUMINATED BY A POINT OF VIEW Mayr for all the dissatisfaction of the rites of the Catholic Church and corrupt empty and longing to return to pristine genres. Mayr has undermined the foundations of a musical practice has fallen and the secularized and politicized by including every possible reference to the German music of the Brothers Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven in the name of natural religion. The Goddess Nature, as we read Zibaldone, it meets most of 'the rites of the Pope and the Archbishop. What would save Mayr of the Sistine Chapel? Not even the pope and the prelates, but the frescoes of Michelangelo, and in particular the sibyls, De Bassus had specially made paint in his palace of Poschiavo.

Mayr made the choice to stay in one place 'has been glorified by a huge throng of "sacred writers" who consider the composer Bavarian man of such modesty to refuse honors and offices in Paris or Vienna. Girolamo Calvi, biographer anywhere near Mayr, praised the author for the 'generosity' of mind and unparalleled selflessness. " According to him, "he degenerates into a mania to benefit." These are feelings that the composer would have pushed "to prefer domestic tranquility, the delights family, the intimacy 'of friends to stop and his home in a small town and almost forgotten. While he could emerge from bright places, go capital capital and receive the praise and applause of all the enlightened European nation. " Calvi believes that this conduct is very shy and modest to have a private "major triumph". In short, it would take advantage "of the favorable opportunities presented themselves." But most 'irreprensibilit that' a mind would suggest such behavior of narrow views. In a letter dated December 1, 1802 sent from Vienna to Venturali sister Lucrezia, Mayr says, 'about the refusal of Bergamo and prestigious positions, "not the point agreed" to remain in Vienna, because' was' better to be first in a village, which according to the throne. " Mayr preferred 'Venice and stop' then definitively in Bergamo to continue the mission that had embraced Freemasonry and illuminated from an early age. Please see the Masonic repertoires. Along with other Masons irreducible had asked the Emperor of being [and] sectarian cleansed of the stain. And of those instances of the contrite 'memory in a file kept in the back to 1831 in Milan: alphabetical list of all the surviving quondam Masons of Lombardy, which he always kept an eye on the government, with very accurate information of their antecedents and the subsequent conduct. From the Calepio Romagnosi dall'Arrivabene to Salvotti by Marshal Mayr Mazzucchelli the musician, there are almost all former patrons of the Masonic lodges. There is a letter sent from Venice Mayr in which the musician thanks Ambrosioni (the printer of the banned books against bishops, popes and religious!) For appointment as maestro di cappella at Bergamo. It was the host for some time to Ambrosioni Mayr at Bergamo and present, through his knowledge, the count Pesenti, his future patron. The Order of the Illuminati secretly endorsed that position, which corresponded to the interests of the sect, forcing Mayr to remain small in Bergamo and reject the other offers prestigious in Europe.

But the adepts of the Order as they could fool the priests Bergamo, if they had shown the doctrine and revealed their origin? Bianchini has explained, referring to documents of the time. The movement of the enlightened in Catholic areas was accused of the most 'terrible atrocities and attacks against the Church. Many considered the Antichrist Weishaupt. His sect, which in Catholic areas today 'Satanic often called, had to be even more contemporary' suspicious, since 'hanging on the founder excommunication and the death penalty by hanging in Monaco of Bavaria, and there is no document in which Mayr dissociates from the first three decades of life, passed from light to the service of De Bassus. Adam Weishaupt is recommended that the lower grades has not shown anything but education on science, "and re-read well, that 'not to leave any reference to the rest of the degree. I want everything' is the face of the Jesuit, that there is a single line are somehow suspect for the state or religion. Let us go gently, nothing without reason, conduct and prepare things at leisure. " What of religious thought in general, and then those from Bergamo, Weishaupt said indirectly when the correct 'status to fit the reader: "In less than enlightened monks instead of stupid idiots put men. In more enlightened to delete the phrase : the priests and the principles we are obstacles. "

Joseph Ambrosioni had managed to make inroads in the political life of the city 'of Bergamo, to become a "big shot" and in 1805 president of Municipalit'. Just in the opening of the Charitable Music Lessons, wanted by Mayr for the education of poor children, but with musical talent. The schools, according to the illuminated texts, not surprisingly seized the castle of De Bassus, were an indispensable means to grow the Order, setting the stage: "You have to constantly forming new plans, in order to see how we can in your provinces to take possession of public education, ecclesiastical government, the chair of teaching and preaching. " The schools were important to the Illuminati, who devoted great care to them and we educated the new recruits. Better yet, those born at the religious centers, supported in some way by the clergy. "If 'for us to have something interesting to mainstream schools - Weishaupt writes - the' even more 'to earn the seminars and their ecclesiastical superiors. As such we have the main part of the country, the more we buy in our favor' great enemy of all innovation, and we 'that most valley' of all, together with the clergy, the people, ordinary people is in our power. Feel for 'than with the clerics must use great caution. These people rarely take a middle, or are too timid or too free, too free to rarely have the costumes. "

It remains to say if and when Mayr was actually considered an Italian musician. According to Bianchini, 'scarcely credible that Mayr sincerely consider an Italian. According to Girolamo Calvi instead Johann Simon Mayr was "Italian writer and only Italian music." Italian music, says he has qualities that defy the Germanic, which 'only works for products. German music can not 'boast effects so' popular 'Mayr learned the art of composing and did all his secondary education in Italy and especially in the middle of Italian music. He also wrote all his works over and Italian words for theaters and his Italian was able to write and 'it's all Italian. " Despite the redundancy of the adjective "Italian", these are topics that have not convinced the preparation of Music Journal, a weekly printed by Giovanni Ricordi Milan, which hosted the Calvi and wanted to disassociate themselves from his views: "We do not agree with Mr. Calvi which distinction should exist in art school because 'the real school' one. Do not rejoice even as he, because 'Mayr has written and said and done more' to the Italian style Alemannic. What good will that art? N 'admit that Italian music is better than German, because 'the first also like the idiots. " Mayr also called himself Italian: "From all of us' is the whole reason that I have to be counted among the writers of Italy, not Germany." And Weishaupt, who thought? 'After which' all the rest of Europe was subjected to the yoke of laws and corruption, the nature, which in parts of northern preserved intact in its Puritan 'and in its original vigor the true race of primitive men, and it has come to rescue the species. From the bottom of the poor and barren lands of the people she calls and sends them in the wild regions of softness and sensuality 'to bring, along with new blood, new life to the enervated body of the South': and other customs and other laws, to restore the vigor of the species, until such time as the germ of corruption poorly extinguished, still infects this portion of mankind itself ', who had arrived much healthier. "

Bianchini's arguments, only summarized here, has raised important questions, no 'because we understand at this point' during the roundtables planned for the bicentennial in Bergamo mayra there is a specific intervention that relates to the printing company De Bassus, anticlerical books Mayr's contribution to 'spread the Masonic world and enlightened of Weishaupt and the membership of the Order of the Illuminati Mayr. Why 'interventions rather insist on the environment and only the Catholic liturgy and sacred time of Mayr, especially after the release of the book, Goethe, Mozart and Mayr, brothers of the same enlightened Bianchini, Anna Trombetta and musicologist, who unequivocally clarify the relationship between Mayr and the Bavarian Illuminati?

As argued by Bianchini, at the end of the intervention, it seems that academic studies are too specialized, focused more and more 'to details and avoiding the cultural, political and social music and general views, covering art, history .. . By dint of seeking more and more 'little things and ignore the reasons for academics, according to the rapporteur, will eventually deal with the increasingly' small and ultimately of nothing! "

* * * * *

The Society 'of the Illuminati was founded by Adam Weishaupt in Ingolstadt on May 1, 1776, the same year the American Declaration of Independence and from the beginning "is true' consciously against absolutism" and against religion. Weishaupt, a professor of canon law was, although the task, an atheist and materialist. He proposed to restore to man the freedom 'natural, he saw limited by traditional political and religious forces. For this he took the secret name of Spartacus, the leader of the slaves in revolt. Many historians see in the Bavarian Illuminati, Freemasonry infiltrated into the direct forerunner of the German national movement, because 'the Sect had conceived the project of unifying Germany and then Europe, eliminating the authorities' political and religious, and replacing them with a unique power, subject to the philosophy of the Order. The revolution would end with the return to the state of nature, where men would live in peace with one another, under the leadership of the Patriarchs themselves. The German Communist Party who will practice 'those ideas, was founded in 1918 by Spartacists led by Karl Liebknecht. He had assumed, like Weishaupt, the secret name of Spartacus. Weishaupt took the Jesuits to structure such as the Order of the Illuminati, and even Hitler will boast 'of having organized the National Socialist movement, drawing inspiration from the Jesuit hierarchy. 'Hard to argue how far the doctrines of Weishaupt substantiate' his school, were a product of original thought and not inspired by some fairly secularized spiritual sect or the Encyclopaedists. Something of his knowledge filter 'in Mayr, Mozart and Goethe and reflected in the size of their thoughts. In 1776 Mayr was only 13 years, but up to twenty-five had time to examine the doctrines of enlightened and take all the degrees of the Order. The ideas and experiences, observations 'Bavarian composer, leaving a profound mark on the soul, especially when they are embraced in youth' and with youthful enthusiasm. The enlightened freedom to preach equality 'and return to the state of Nature, proposing a grand vision of a society' based on goodness' and peace. The ritual texts, the degree of epoptic, hark back to Rousseau's theory of human nature good. In his speech in the presence of the brothers already all'Epopto 'began, the president lit notes that "the human race it has also his childhood, his youth, his virilit' and old age. In each of these periods, men know new needs. Since we 'come to their moral and political revolutions. In the age' is manifested throughout the manly dignity 'of mankind. Then only the man, trained by long experience, which sees disaster' for him to violate rights others and avail of some exterior advantages, to rise to the detriment of others. et in that 'only you see and know what good and what an honor' to be a man. This first et '' rough and wild nature. The family will forms the company '. Hunger and thirst are easy to placate, a shelter against the ravages of the seasons, a woman and the rest after work are the only requirements for this period. In this state man enjoyed more than two goods 'Predictable: equality and freedom'. He fully enjoyed it and would have always been, if he wanted to follow the path that indicated the nature. Happy mortal! ". The man must find in himself the prototype of the immaculate nature by eliminating waste and the trappings of civilization '. Mayr also "every time has its own spirit" and the modern "do not think you love above all things, wants only to enjoy it and nothing more '." If the man wants to be happy, must imitate the art, 'daughter of nature, otherwise life would be for him "a sad desert, where they do not grow n' trees n 'flowers".

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