Cathedral of Noto, the Sicilian Baroque
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|The Baroque was a cultural movement that has dominated Europe, both in the literature, the visual arts and music.|
|The Late Renaissance Baroque age follows.|
It begins in 1600 and ends in 1690 with about Arcadia.
The music in the Baroque
Notes on the History of Music
dedicated to our students
Luca Bianchini, Anna Trombetta and
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The Chain of Adonis represents the ambition of intellectuals to establish the supremacy of this sensual experience over all other forms of knowledge, so Arset says that "The reason loses the sense which abounds." The hero is beautiful for maximum pleasure, which can be derived from knowing Venus, the most beautiful of the divinities. There is no other than the terrestrial paradise, where the action takes place in the Chain of Adonis. Hence the charge of the work heretical, because happiness here in Mazzocchi, as there nell'Adone Marino, it's all sensual, earthly. It can be regained only through the use of touch, which is the finest instrument of knowledge that man possesses. Mazzocchi and the librettist Tronsarelli not move in search of a Counter-absolute truth, but rather a method that allows them to gain certainty, or partial truths, with which to build their new world. As Galileo is based on experimental knowledge of the world, so the protagonist of the Chain of Adonis knows through the senses. The musician plays the Mazzocchi booklet as an endless erotic experience loads of new effects, choirs and polyphonic pieces, as well as dances, songs, instrumental interludes, and a curious sung ballet, titled "Dances interspersed with songs, and passages" , which alternates with the chorus of nymphs and interventions of pastors. The music is made more efficient by the beautiful baroque stage set of machines and appearances, which add to erotic sensuality.
the new spirit of the Baroque
Writers like Marino, the librettist and musician Tronsarelli Mazzocchi, used this language in the beginning of the Baroque revolution, with the common goal of Galileo. In the mid-seventeenth century, this new language fall back on repetitive rhetorical literary and musical exercises.
Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation Baroque influenced the development of genres in the field of sacred and profane. The musical forms, apart from some local tradition, were uniform up to that time in Europe. The madrigal of the sixteenth century had similar characters in the Italy of Gabrieli, Dowland in England, in France Verdelot. The religious split that led to divisions between the two blocs, who developed different forms of music. In Germany and the country flourished Lutheran Choir and the Sing. And all the congregation sang with one voice the same melody. The organ was essential to accompany the sacred functions, and acquired importance as a solo instrument. Perhaps it served to emphasize the unique relationship between the individual, represented by the solo instrument, with the God of the Protestants. The Catholics insisted instead on the concept of assemblies of the clergy and mediation between God and man. After the Council of Trent, which began under the pontificate of Pope Paul III and that ended in 1563, the character of the music known as the Counter-Reformation was strictly laid down. The musical accompaniments were reduced in complexity, the profane songs they could no longer serve as a standard for polyphonic Masses. It was also established a requirement to understand the words in church music, unlike for example the Flemish compositions, where the text was not clear anymore. Polyphony, however, was not repudiated, simply tried to bring her back to the purity of its origins. Since Catholics were opposed to singing their own unique genre of the Protestant chorale, which could revive the faith in the listeners, here is a polyphony that helped people liked it, spreading it to all the Catholic areas during the early seventeenth century. The Protestant Chorale promoted the active role of participants in the liturgy, the polyphony instead of passive listeners, who get drunk counterpoints performed by professional singers.
Sante Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (Palestrina, 1525 - Rome, February 2, 1594) had the merit of developing a language understandable to the maximum polyphony, intertwining vocals with great skill, using all the tricks of counterpoint. The words of the religious text returned to glow with an austere but beautiful music. The exclusive Palestrina was generally opposed to the Lutheran Chorale. Legend has it that Paestrina composed a six-part polyphonic mass, the Missa Papa Marcelli in 1555, to show the Pope that counterpoint was compatible with the doctrines of the Counter-Reformation. The composer was able to actually play the taste of the time, he could not refuse such a well-established that appealed to many. The Counter-Reformation, even for a spirit of proselytism, would have approved even without the polyphony Palestrina. But it is fascinating to believe that the Mass of Palestrina, acclaimed Princeps Musicae of the Catholic Church, had saved his sacred music, and counterpoint, a technique of music that always had a special place in liturgical functions together with Gregorian chant. In Masses "Sine Nomine" by Palestrina, in fact, continued the ancient practice of using secular tunes in religious compositions.
Even in literature, as in music every year drew up a list of forbidden books, even those in which they ended by Giovanni Boccaccio, who was considered a heretic. Giordano Bruno was condemned to the stake in 1600. This atrocity tragically inhuman symbolizes the beginning of the Baroque.
In Rome, after simplification dictated by the Council of Trent, the Florentine Emilio de 'Cavalieri (Rome, 1550 - Rome, March 11, 1602) of the Camerata de' Bardi wrote in 1600 that the work represents the transition from late Renaissance to Baroque. If the chain of Adonis Mazzocchi highlights the side of a heretic, as the work of Marino from which it derives, that of Knight is apparently more related to the Counter-Reformation, but the interpretations are many. The choice of works to the surface followed the spirit of the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The representation of soul and body used polyphony, which in the intention of going away from the Counter-Choral. Even the moralizing texts were in the spirit of the new devotion, but the solo songs and the wonderful theatrical effects, typical of opera by contemporary authors such as Jacopo Peri, Giulio Caccini and Claudio Monteverdi, carrying the Opera into a new world in search of 'sensual effects, and analogies to the Greek pagan music. No coincidence that the operas were regarded with suspicion throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by the preachers, who always saw the occasions of sin, and receptacles of heresies. The Camerata Bardi, Emilio de Cavalieri from which it came, was not at all celebrated for the rediscovery of the pagan tragedy and theatrical genres of classical Greece. In his Dialogue of ancient and modern music, Vincenzo Galilei, father of Galileo, expounded on the ideas of polyphony and monody, hoping to return to the purity of the music of ancient Greece. The refusal of polyphony in favor of monody was advocated by the Council of Trent, but for entirely different reasons. The Counter-Reformation polyphony condemned because it made incomprehensible religious texts, while Vincenzo Galilei and the Camerata disliked to return to the glories of old pagan music theater. Giovanni Bardi's group encouraged the development of an acting style midway between song and speech. The new type was applied to monodies, intermediate, and then more articulate. The composers of the Camerata invented the play. He then devoted to experimental music in the style of relativistic time, in sharp contrast with the single thought of the post-conciliar period.
The work of the Representation of Soul and Body is preceded by a prologue spoken and is divided into Acts. Describes the tests that they face, body and soul to withstand the wiles of the World. The Intellect and the Council are characters that invite the listener to flee sin and pursue the path of salvation to the sky. The souls of the damned and the blessed each illustrate the pains, the other the beatitudes. The personification of Time reminds them of the ephemeral nature of things, which is one of the leitmotifs of the Baroque. Soul and Body in the final invite everyone to praise the Lord, culminating in an innovative ballet sung. The insistence on the ephemeral subjects is typical of the culture of the Baroque, then developed by Caravaggio painting.
The Academy was founded not by chance Bardi in Florence. The first meetings were held by the Camerata January 14, 1573. Florence was the cradle of other Academies of free thought, alternative to the doctrines of the Church. For example there was the neo-Platonic, founded in 1459 by Marsilio Ficino by Cosimo de 'Medici. This was dissolved in 1523. Academy Like the Bard, one of Ficino sought inspiration in ancient Greece. Predel both pagan themes, namely classical mythology: the example of Venus, or those of Hercules or Mars. Venus is also the protagonist of the Chain of Adonis. Just as he did at the beginning of the seventeenth century the poet Marino, the Florentine Neoplatonic Academy transformed into a goddess of Olympus sinful celestial Venus, symbol of spiritual or earthly gods, symbol of sensuality.
What soul and body is also the representation of another neo-Platonic theme: the struggle between good and evil, between an upper and a lower principle. In which subjects Adonis Venus is Mars. In the representation of the Knights is rather the revival of Hercules slaying the monsters: the work will say that the Platonic human spirit is always suspended between vice and virtue, a victim of instinct that pulling them down. The person that is always aware of his limitations.
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