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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

posthumous portrait of Mozart

Posthumous portrait of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Barbara Kraft made the request in 1819 by Joseph Sonnleithner


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Printed scores

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Die ersten des Schuldigkeit Gebotes K35 - (The obligation of the First Commandment)
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Apollo et Hyacinthus K38 - (May 13, 1767, University of Salzburg)
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Bastien und Bastienne K50 - (October 2, 1890, Architektenhaus, Berlin)
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La finta semplice K51 - (1 May 1769, the Court of the Archbishop, Salzburg)
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Mitridate, re di Ponto K87 (26 December 1770, Teatro Regio Ducal, Milan)
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Ascanio in Alba, K111 - (October 17, 1771, Teatro Regio Ducal, Milan)
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The Dream of Scipio K126 - (1 May 1772, Archbishop's House, Salzburg)
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Lucio Silla K135 - (December 26, 1772, Teatro Regio Ducal, Milan)
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La Finta Giardiniera K196 - (January 13, 1775, Redoutensaal, Monaco)
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Il re pastore K208 - (April 23, 1775, Archbishop's House, Salzburg)
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Zaide K344 - (unfinished work) (January 27, 1866, Frankfurt)
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Thamos K�nig in �gypten K345 (choirs and musical interludes)
Idomeneo, Ilia and Idamante ie, K366 - (January 29, 1781, Cuvilli�s Theatre of Monaco)
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Die Entf�hrung aus dem Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio) K384 - (July 16, 1782, Burgtheater, Vienna)
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The Goose of Cairo K422 - (unfinished) (1784, April 1860, Frankfurt)
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The groom disappointed that the rivalry of three women to one lover K430 (unfinished work) (1784)
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Der Schauspieldirektor (The theater) K486 - (February 7, 1786, Sch�nbrunn Palace, Vienna)
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The Marriage of Figaro K492 - (1 May 1786, Burgtheater, Vienna)
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Don Giovanni, or The dissolute punished K527 - (October 29, 1787, the Estates Theatre, Prague)
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Cosi fan tutte, K588 or The School for Lovers - (January 26, 1790, Burgtheater, Vienna)
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Die Zauberfl�te (The Magic Flute) K620 - (September 30, 1791, Theater auf der Wieden, Vienna)
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La Clemenza di Tito K621 - (September 6, 1791, the Estates Theatre, Prague)
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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The birth and family

Mozart was born January 27, 1756, at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg, the capital of the archdiocese, at the time belonged to the sovereign territory in the Holy Roman Empire Bavarian Circle (currently Austria). Wolfgang was baptized the day after his birth at St. Rupert's Cathedral.

The news of the birth of Wolfgang was given by his father Leopold in a letter dated February 9, 1756 a friend of Augsburg, Johann Jakob Lotter:

"I inform you that on January 27, at eight o'clock in the evening, my dear wife gave birth to a boy happily. She had to remove the placenta and so she was extremely weak. But now, thank God, is the child that the mother are doing well. The boy is called Joannes Chrysostom Wolfgang Gottlieb. "

Wolfgang's parents had almost the same age (the mother differed from her husband of one year) and were active figures of the time: his father Leopold, a composer of music, held the position of vice-Kapellmeister at the court of the Archbishop Anton Firmian; mother Anna Maria Pertl (1720 - 1778) was the daughter of a prefect.

Of the numerous children of Leopold and Anna Maria, Wolfgang aside, the only non-dead childhood was his elder sister Maria Anna (1751-1829), known as Nannerl Nannette or.


The child said showed an early talent for music. According to many nineteenth century onwards, a true child prodigy: at three years pounding the keys of the harpsichord, played four short and simple pieces, some composed of five little exercise on the harpsichord. But there is no evidence that music was his, or his father or some other author. In the nineteenth century flourished various tales about his prodigious memory, the composition of a miraculous concert at the age of five years, his kindness and sensitivity, his fear for the sound of the trumpet. SDIC is developed perfect pitch as a child, but it is shown, however, that he could not compose without the harpsichord.

When he did not even six years, his father took him and his sister, who at that time was not to be so good, in Monaco, so they played for the court Bavarian Elector. There is no feedback. Some months later they went to Vienna, where they were presented to the imperial court and in various noble houses. Travel very strange and poorly documented. Mozart had written some elementary Minuet and uncompleted. Neither one understands who taught him to compose, nor on what instrument is exercised (it does not seem to possess one).

"The miracle that God has been born in Salzburg" was the definition we gave of her son Leopold and therefore he felt obliged to express the miracle to the world (and perhaps even gain some profit).

In mid 1763 he obtained a leave of absence from his post as vice-Kapellmeister at the court of the Prince Bishop of Salzburg. Strange that the permission was granted are such ease, immediately after obtaining the post. The biography of Mozart, built mainly in the nineteenth century, who had a taste for the genes for Nature, is very problematic.

The whole family made, together with a long journey, which lasted more than three years. And Leopold held the post of vice-maestro di cappella! They touched those who were the major musical centers of Western Europe: Monaco, Augsburg, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mainz, Frankfurt, Brussels and Paris (where he stayed the first winter), then London (where they remained for fifteen months), then returning through The Hague, Amsterdam, Paris, Lyon, Switzerland and finally arriving in Salzburg in November 1766.

Mozart played in most of these cities, either alone or with her sister, now in court, now in public, now a church. The letters that Leopold wrote to friends in Salzburg tell admiration collected by his son, but misses to the fragmentary information told by his father.

In Paris they met several German composers and in this city were first published compositions by Mozart (sonatas for harpsichord and violin, dedicated to a royal princess, cf. KV 6-9). They are very simple, does not seem to be Wolfgang. The question of attribution is open.

In London they met, among others, Johann Christian Bach, youngest son of Johann Sebastian and one of the leading figures of London's musical life: under its influence, Mozart composed his first symphony (KV 16, KV 19 and K. 19a). The attribution to Mozart is once again problematic, for these and all the other symphonies. Another symphony followed during their stay in The Hague, on the return journey (K. 22).

After just over nine months in Salzburg, Mozart went to Vienna in September 1767, where he remained for fifteen months, excluding an interval of ten weeks in Brno (Br�nn) and Olomouc (Olm�tz) during a smallpox epidemic. Mozart composed (or simply reorganized) a German Singspiel in one act, Bastien und Bastienne (K. 50), which was performed privately. More hopes were placed in the perspective to see represented in the court theater Italian opera buffa, La finta semplice (K. 51): But those hopes were dashed, with great indignation of Leopold dubitabano because the singers had written a little boy. A very high mass (probably KV 139) was instead performed in the presence of the imperial court at the dedication of the church orphanage. Mozart demonstrated to possess technical knowledge that he had never studied before the stay in Italy. This calls into question the attribution to Mozart. La finta semplice was performed the following year, 1769, in the palace of the archbishop of Salzburg. In October Mozart was appointed concertmaster at the court fees Salzburg.

Just thirteen years old, Mozart was familiar with the musical language of his time. The first sonatas in Paris and London, whose autographs include the use of the hand of Leopold, showing a childish pleasure in shaping the notes and musical texture. But the symphonies of London and The Hague attest to the rapid acquisition and original music by Mozart that he had met. Some music is copied or revised. Similar demonstrations are from the symphonies composed in Vienna (as KV 43 and, especially, KV 48), characterized by a richer texture and a more in-depth development. His first Italian opera, then, shows a strange and quick learning style techniques funny.

Mozart in Italy (1769-1773)

"Our church music is very different than that of Italy, and increasingly, with all the Mass the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, the Epistle Sonata, the Offertory or both Motet, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, and also the most solemn when he says Mass Prince himself has to last you the longest three quarters of an hour. It takes a special study for this kind of composition, and that needs to be a Mass with all instruments - war trumpets, tympani, etc.. "
(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 1776)

From 1769 to 1773 with his father Wolfgang effected three trips to Italy, during which he played and listened to music in various cities, with some few moments of simple pleasure.

First voyage (1769-1770)

December 1769: Bolzano, Trento and Verona;
January 1770: Mantua, Cremona and Milan;
March 1770: Lodi, Parma, Bologna and Florence;
April 1770: Rome;
May 1770: Naples, which goes on a trip to Pozzuoli, Baia, Pompeii, Herculaneum and Caserta;
June 1770: Rome;
July 1770: Spoleto, Loreto, Ancona, Senigallia, Pesaro, Rimini, Bologna;
October 1770: Milan;
January 1771: Turin and Milan;
February 1771: Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Venice;
March 1771: Padua, Verona, Salzburg.
Second trip:

August 1771: Rovereto, Ala, Verona, Brescia, Milan;
December 1771: Brescia, Verona, Ala., Brixen, Salzburg.
Third trip:

October 1772: Bressanone, Trento, Rovereto, Ala
November 1772: Verona, Milan
March 1773: Verona, Trent, Brixen, Salzburg.
First viaggioI stays in Milan will become an important learning experience: Mozart (sometimes called "Volgango Amadeo") will remain in Milan for nearly a whole year of his short life. He met musicians (Johann Adolph Hasse, Niccol� Piccinni, Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Johann Christian Bach and perhaps Giovanni Paisiello), singers (Caterina Gabrielli) and writers (Giuseppe Parini, who wrote some books for him).

Hasse was impressed by the capabilities of the boy, so he said: 'This boy will make us forget all. "

The correspondence

The letters of Mozart, known for vulgar and indecent scurrilous letters contained in it, was made public in its entirety only in recent times. Out of curiosity, they offer some excerpts.

"See, I can write in any way you want it, Elegant or wild, incorrect or twisted. Yesterday I was in a foul mood and my language was inappropriate and seriously, I'm happy now and my style is convoluted and playful. " A B�sle.
"Oui, with the feeling defecates on your nose, so you coli on the chin." To his cousin Maria Anna, affectionately called B�sle.
"Yesterday we heard the king fart / nougat was sweet as / And though not much in voice / roared so awful." The mother
"I'm sorry to hear that Herr Abbot salt has had a stroke, but I hope that with the help of the Lord Crook the consequences are not an insane quagmire" (1777 - Here you can clearly see the distrust that Mozart felt for religion, and the comic irreverence with which he used quotation marks).
"Now I communicate news that you may know already: quell'ateo arcibirbone and Voltaire, he died like a dog. What a reward! "Letter to his father Leopold (1778).

He left Milan on 15 March 1770, to go back several times. Arrived in Lodi on the road to Parma, he says he wrote the first three parts, Adagio, Allegro and Minuet, KV80 of the quartet, completed with the Rondo who would later write, perhaps in Vienna (1773) or Salzburg (1774). He will return to London to represent his operas. The latest to debut in a theater was the Italian Lucio Silla in 1772.

Another key was to stay in Bologna (on two occasions, from March to October 1770). Guest of Count Gian Luca Pallavicini, had the opportunity to meet musicians and scholars (from the famous castrato Farinelli, and the composers Vincenzo Manfredini Josef Mysliveček, until the English music historian Charles Burney and his father Giovanni Battista Martini). In Parma, he had the opportunity to attend a private concert of the famous soprano Lucrezia Agujari called The Bastardella.

Amadeus say took lessons in counterpoint from Padre Martini, but it is not proven and supported the examination for aggregation at the Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna (then the European title coveted by musicians). The examination of the still young Mozart was not particularly brilliant, and there is evidence that the same Martini has helped in the examination in order to encourage the promotion. An indication of the troubled outcome, in fact, the task of the so-called Mozart three copies exist today, the first two exhibited the International Museum and library of music and the "final" at the Accademia Filarmonica in Bologna, all signed Mozart, which is a blatantly false.

In Rome, Mozart is said to have given an extraordinary proof of his genius in the Sistine Chapel hear the Miserere by Gregorio Allegri and manages the enterprise to completely transcribe it from memory after only two plays. The story is invented out of whole cloth and the stories are urban legends. The Miserere is a composition for nine voices, so much appreciated to be the exclusive property of the papal chapel, and said it was demanded of excommunication to those who possessed it was outside the Vatican walls. There is no proof of this excommunication or of the fact, even invented, that there were no other copies. The company has the characteristics of the mind-boggling when you consider the age of the young composer and the amazing memory capacity that would have been necessary, but it never happened.

The Salzburg went to Naples, where he stayed for six weeks and where the legendary Neapolitan superstition pointed to the ring finger that led the composer to the genesis of his incredible musical ability, so as to force him to take it off. Even in Naples then doubted the capabilities. But apart from the superstition, in 1770 Naples was the capital of music as well as that of a kingdom, and Mozart had a chance to test the waters of Neapolitan music production. Amadeus was attracted by the innovators of music in Naples: Traetta, Cafaro, Francesco De Majo and mainly Paisiello. From Paisiello - Abert second - the young Mozart had to learn different aspects of "mediums for both new and for the use of dramatic and psychological tools). Mozart is in Naples to learn, but the city ignores him, despite the positive results obtained by Mozart during his stay in Bologna and Rome.

Ferdinand IV of Bourbon, eighteen at the time, not only in the court receives a courtesy visit at the Royal Palace of Portici. Mozart did not get any writing in the theaters in Naples, no concert at the Music Capital of the court. The quality and quantity of music produced in Naples prompts the father to his son Leopold in a letter dated 23 February 1778 to say: "Now the only question is: where can I get more hoping to emerge? Perhaps in Italy, where only in Naples surely there are 300 or Paris Masters, where about two or three people write for the theater and other composers can be counted on fingertips? "

The journey back to the house where he started with a new stop in Rome, where Pope Clement XIV awarded him the Golden Spur, title QUL that time was not worth anything. Casanova said he was given by the ambassadors to their valets. That the wearer could be defined at that time an impostor.

Then the Mozarts left Rome to travel on the Adriatic coast, stopping at Ancona and Loreto, this stay was struck by the young Mozart, so much so that, shortly after his return, he says he wrote a composition dedicated to the Holy Virgin of Loreto entitled Mariae Virginis Litaniae Lauretanae Beatae , followed three years later, in 1774, by a second.

He returned to Bologna, where as mentioned above, supported the examination Mozart Academy, and then came to Milan, where Wolfgang hoped to remain as court composer, but his expectations were frustrated by Maria Theresa of Austria. In March of 1771 the Mozarts returned to Salzburg, where he will remain there until August, when it will start again for a second trip to Italy, for four months.

Second and third trip to Italy

In Milan, the work is represented in October Ascanio in Alba libretto by Giuseppe Parini to celebrate the wedding of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, Princess of Austria and Maria Beatrice d'Este of Modena Ricciarda.

In December of that year Wolfgang with his father back in his hometown.

The third and last trip to Italy lasted from October 1772 until March of 1773, a period in which important is the composition and performance of the opera Lucio Silla in Milan. After an initial failure, this work became even more serious represented and appreciated and applauded the previous Mitridate, re di Ponto, libretto by Cigna-Santi based on the homonymous work translated from the French of Racine Parini, and directed by Mozart for the same cities in 1770.

Mannheim and Paris (1777-1780)

He had to be clear, not only but also to Wolfgang to his father, a small provincial court of Salzburg was not like a good place to Wolfgang. Nobody liked him there.

In 1777 he asked permission to be absent from the Archbishop of Salzburg and, accompanied by her mother, went off in search of new opportunities. Correspondence held with his father during the sixteen months of travel not only provides information on what Mozart did, but it casts a strange light on the change in their relationships. Wolfgang, now twenty-one, he felt increasingly the need to break free from the domination of his father, Leopold and anxieties about their future took on pathological dimensions.

Mozart and his mother went to first place in Monaco, where the elector refused to offer Mozart a post in his court. So they went to Augusta, paid a visit to the paternal relatives, Wolfgang began here a lively friendship with his cousin Maria Anna Thekla (with whom he later held a match full of obscenities).

At the end of October, Mozart and his mother arrived in Mannheim, Elector Palatine, whose court was one of the most famous in Europe and evolved musically. Mozart stayed for more than four months, although not understood early on that there was no place for him. He became friends with several musicians in Mannheim, it is said he taught music and played, fell in love with Aloysia Weber, a soprano, the second of four daughters of a music copyist. He wrote several sonatas for piano (but there are problems of attribution), some with violin accompaniment. A draft prospectus to the father traveling to Italy with Weber that proposal, totally irresponsible, was rejected by Leopold with a replica angrily: "Come on, Paris! And you can soon find your place among the great men: aut Caesar aut nihil ".

The plan was that Wolfgang had to go alone in the French capital, but because the father did not have great confidence in the administrative capacities of the child, decided it should still be accompanied by his mother. They reached Paris towards the end of March 1778 and was soon to be Mozart's work. Its most important result is the symphony (K. 297) composed for the Concerts spirituels, a brilliant composition in D major with which he satisfied the taste of the Parisian public with big orchestral show off, without sacrificing the unity of the composition.

The celebrated opening of the symphony, June 18, his mother was seriously ill. Anna Maria Pertl Mozart married, died July 3, 1778 and was buried in the cemetery of Saint Eustache, his funeral was attended only the son and his friend Wolfgang Heine.

Mozart wrote to Leopold, first talking about a serious illness, and yet another letter he wrote to a friend in Salzburg, Abbot Franz Joseph Bullinger, asking him to prepare his father the sad news. Wolfgang then went to live with Friedrich Melchior, Baron von Grimm, a German friend. Shortly after speaking pessimistically Grimm wrote to Leopold Wolfgang prospects in Paris. Leopold, therefore, negotiated with the Archbishop the reinstatement of his son at the court of Salzburg, with the role of organist. Called home, Wolfgang, albeit reluctantly, obeyed and went towards the town, going to Mannheim, where he was coolly received by Aloysia Weber. In mid-January of 1780 he was back in Salzburg.

Break with the Archbishop and left for Vienna (1780-1791)

Wolfgang came so very disappointed in his hometown with his mother's death and the realization of their musical abilities, he had always wanted to travel more and engage with the new cultural realities, surely the little things that do not and provincial Salzburg could offer. In Salzburg, he was employed, like his father, Leopold, the Archbishop's Court, Leopold as vice-director of chapel, organist Wolfgang. In Wolfgang, however, this occupation was closely: while the father was important that the child could consolidate its position as more and more employee with a fixed salary, Wolfgang aspired to something more, perhaps an artist to be completely free. In this sense Mozart was truly a child of his time, that would have brought that era

Because of this thirst for freedom, Wolfgang began to have increasingly frequent disagreements with his father (who saw in him a worthy successor to the salary for a job well local court), but also with Hieronymus von Colloredo, Archbishop of Salzburg, which often the biographies of Mozart dedicated judgments ungrateful. Surely he, who can be defined in hindsight a worthy representative of enlightened despotism (he had a bust of Voltaire in his residence), that he did not understand a genius to its service, but it is also true, however, that Mozart should ask more and more licenses often extraordinary and ever-longer, which Colloredo, of course, could not bear. This, inevitably, could only lead to a rupture between the two.

The opportunity came soon. Thanks to contacts with Weber, Wolfgang was commissioned opera, Idomeneo, Ilia and Idamante ie, to be performed in Monaco. Convinced he can win the favor with this Court, Mozart fell in composition with enthusiasm, and at the end of 1780 was in the Bavarian capital. On January 29, 1781 Idomeneo was staged with huge success, so much so that several replicas were placed in the same period, the Empress Maria Theresa died, and the Archbishop Colloredo, he went to Vienna for the funeral.

These facts "forced" to stay longer than necessary Wolfgang out of the office and get his master in the Austrian capital to officially join him and apologize, in fact, with the aim of getting hired by the new Emperor Joseph II, but it did not happen. Mozart in 1787 only to be appointed court composer, albeit modest salaried position with 800 florins a year (Gluck had taken four thousand).

Things went well for Mozart, in the sense that the Archbishop, angry at his behavior, literally throwing him out of the palace by his chamberlain with a "historical" kick up the backside. A time ignoring the pleas of the father determined to Cardinal Leopold's son, dismissed, stayed in Vienna with the intention of living as a freelance artist, that is, without a steady job while composing music for the Court. Mozart in the Austrian capital will remain, except for brief periods, for the rest of his life, and composed his best music and died young, without ever knowing the true success.

Mozart's Freemason

Mozart joined the Freemasons just after the departure for Vienna, and his career as a musician at the peak of success. It was started as an apprentice December 14, 1784, the lodge "The Charity" in Vienna. The composer, in a short time, went through all the initiatory path of Freemasonry "Rushing through the stages" in March of 1785 he was elevated to the rank of Companion and a month later, on April 22, he became Master. Meanwhile, his father Leopold was initiated into the mysteries of Freemasonry.

Membership in Masonic Mozart was not mere lip service, but had to serve much of his career. He drew inspiration for spiritual and esoteric subjects: among these is particularly the symbolism of the "Magic Flute". Symbolic progression of the character of the third parallel, which marks the end of the work K623. The Masonic character, then, is also imprinted in the shade (with a preference of E flat) and timbres, which is predominant presence of wind instruments and male voices.

Freemasons belong to the universe of music, among other works, the "K471 Cantata" in 1785, "The Adagio" for 2 clarinets and 3 basset horns K411 of the same year and the "Masonic Funeral Music" K477 (also of this 1785), as well as the "Little Masonic Cantata" K623, 1791.

Illness and death (1791) Mozart died fifty minutes after midnight on December 5, 1791. The funeral was celebrated on December 6, at three in the afternoon. The coffin was taken to St. Stephen's Cathedral, in front of the Chapel of the Crucifix, near the so-called "pulpit Capistran", where the funeral took place outside the more modest blessing. The body was then buried in a mass grave in the cemetery of St. Mark. The image they want to Mozart died poor and forgotten does not fully correspond to the truth. The burial in a mass grave was in keeping with social status and perhaps Mozart was also dictated by economic reasons. Mozart, moreover, while not enjoying a tremendous success over the last years of his life, was still imperial and royal court composer with a modest salary of 800 florins a year. Moreover, it should be noted that-although in fact gone missing the exact burial place of Mozart in Vienna there are two tombs of the composer in two cemeteries, one at the St. Marx Cemetery and another at the central Zentralfriedhof cemetery.

Illness and death of Mozart have been and are still a difficult subject for study, obscured by romantic legends and stuffed with conflicting theories. Scholars disagree on the course of the declining health of Mozart, in particular the moment when Mozart became aware of his impending death and whether this awareness influenced his final works.

The romantic idea of ​​Mozart argues that the decline was gradual and that his perspective and his compositions also declined in equal measure. In contrast, his contemporary scholar, pointed out some last year as Mozart was in good spirits and that death came unexpectedly for friends and family.

Although the actual cause of death of Mozart is a matter of conjecture. His death certificate lists hitziges Frieselfieber ("acute miliary fever", which was then considered contagious, or "febrile rash"), a definition is insufficient to identify the corresponding diagnosis in medicine today. Have been several hypotheses, trichinosis from mercury poisoning, and rheumatic fever, more recently, syphilis. The therapeutic practice of bloodletting, popular at the time, is mentioned as a contributory cause of death. A series of epidemiological studies performed in 2009 by a group of Austrian and Dutch pathologists, who have stopped to study all the main causes of death in the last years of Mozart's life, leads us to believe that - most likely - the composer is dead for acute nephritis resulting from a streptococcal glomerulonephritis etiology. Another recent hypothesis suggests that Mozart died of a blow with a stick, following a revenge of a brother Mason, to which Mozart had threatened his wife.

Mozart died, leaving unfinished the Requiem, whose completion was entrusted by his wife of the composer in the first instance to the musician Josef von Eybler, which, however, soon came back. It was then called the young composer Franz Xaver S�ssmayr, a student and friend of Mozart, who finished the work, completing the unfinished parts from scratch and writing the non-existent.

Constanze Weber in 1809, his widow, married with Danish diplomat Georg Nikolaus von Nissen (1761-1826), a great admirer of Mozart and author of one of the first and partial biographies dedicated to the musician. For this work, certainly drew on testimony by Constanze Nissen, which, however, can not be considered a reliable source. Nppure Leopold is reliable for the biography of Mozart has more dark sides, due to the excess of hagiography. For example, the letters written by Mozart to friends and family (at the same Constanze, for example) and Constanze Nissen obliterated parts often scurrilous and that a clear intention to idealize the figure of the composer.

The music of the eighteenth century and the Baroque and Classicism should generally be re-discussed the issue of attribution.

Amended version, according to new acquisitions, which is derived from Wikipedia, "Mozart," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart (checked on 8 May 2011).


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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

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