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"The Golden Stairs" (1866), oil on canvas, 277 x 117 cm, the painter Edward Burne-Jones (Tate Gallery, London)


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Gustave Dore, Jael and Sisera, 1874.

Project Mayr

Deborah, Jael and Sisera

Speakers, dramas and sacred works

The review is by Anna Trombetta Sisera and Luca Bianchini. The oratorio was performed in Bergamo, Como and Lecco in 1998 for the Jubilee of the millennium ("The Bible in Music), Director PierAngelo Pelucchi.

We have published an analysis of Sisera in at "MAYR, DE Bassus, Ambrosioni AND THE ILLUMINATI OF BAVARIA: Mayr's contributions to the Masonic music and book trade, which involved the composer saw in Poschiavo, Bergamo and Venice", italianOpera 2003.
This work has broadened and deepened the intervention "MAYR, DE Bassus, Ambrosioni E Bavarian Illuminati ..." Luca Bianchini required by June 25, 2001 Bergamo Committee for the celebrations on the occasion of 200 years mayriane the appointment of Giovanni Simone Mayr as maestro di cappella of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bergamo (1802-1902).
In the preface to thank the Committee for the celebrations mayriane, composed by Francesco Bellotto, Giulio Orazio Bravi, Pieralberto Cattaneo, Marcello Eynard, Valerian Sacchiero, Rodobaldo Tibaldi, Virgil and Bernardoni PierAngelo Pelucchi to the contribution paid to Luca Bianchini in October 2002.
Our research complements the Acts of Congress, to use or quote any part of the text we have mentioned the names of Anna Trombetta and Luca Bianchini.

The prophetess Deborah is a character of the Old Testament, quoted chapters IV, V and VI of the Book of Judges, when Barak calls, promising him the victory, collecting an army against Sisera, commander of the army of the Canaanites, and Israel's enemy. Barak defeated Sisera fact, you can walk to the tent of Jael, the wife of Heber. The woman and drink from home, offering to porteggerlo. When he falls asleep kills him, piercing his temple with a picket. Barak, in pursuit of Sisera, Jael comes from, when Sisera is dead. Deborah raises to God a hymn of praise:

JUDGES
CHAPTER VI

[24] Most blessed of women be Jael,
the wife of Heber the Kenite,
blessed among women in the tent!
[25] He asked water, milk she gave,
principles offered in a cup of sour milk.
[26] A hand stretched out to guard it
and the right to a blacksmith's hammer,
and struck Sisera, struck him in the head,
smashed it, it pierced his temple.
[27] At her feet twitched, he fell, he lay;
At her feet twisted, fell,
where he writhed, there he fell over.
[28] Behind the window faces and complains
Sisera's mother, behind the shutter:
Why is his chariot so long in coming?
Why so slowly proceed with his chariots?
[29] The wisest of her princesses answer
and she returned to say to herself:
[30] Of course they found loot, making the standard parts:
a girl, two girls for every man;
colorful robes as a reward for Sisera,
spoils of colorful embroidered robes;
as a two-colored embroidery
is the loot for my neck ...
[31] So all your enemies perish, O Lord!
But those who love you be like the sun,
when it arises with all the splendor. "

Few composers have shares to music, or sacred books on the subject of Deborah. Johann Simon Mayr called his oratorio Sisera, the commander of the Canaanite reserving the title role (the first Airy, a Cavatina, some recitatives, in addition to the two Airy Aria and Duet and Chorus in the first part, recitatives, a Duet, two Airy, and an aria in the second Duettino). But the biblical character is not the main Sisera, who everyone calls Sisera (Handel arias in Act entrusts him with only two seconds), but Deborah or Jael, for Catholics who prefigures the Virgin Mary:

"The work of God emerges all the more luminous, in that he does not resort to a warrior or an army. As once, at the time of Deborah, had eliminated the Canaanite general Sisera by Jael, a woman (cf. Judg 4 , 17-21), now serves again a helpless woman [Judith] to bring assistance to people in distress ... the Christian tradition of a Jewish heroine sees foreshadowing of Mary. "
John Paul II, 'General Audience of Wednesday, August 29, 2001.
In the Liturgy of the Blessed Virgin is written: "Most blessed of women be Jael" (Judges 5, 24). Ruth was blessed: "Be blessed by the Lord, my daughter!" (Rt 3, 10). Abigail was blessed: "Blessed are you that I have now prevented from coming to blood and from avenging myself" (1 Sam 25. 33). Judith was blessed: "Blessed are you, daughter, before the Most High God above all women upon the earth" (Judith 13, 18). Among these women and these women above the Virgin Mary is blessed, because you have done all those blessings. "

"The unity of all Scripture is crucial and allows, for example, to connect a non-arbitrary in the Woman of Genesis with the Woman of Jn 2.15 2.5 and 19.26 and the Woman of 12.1, as well as to detect the blessing of being placed on women who have had a liberating function in Israel: Jael (Judges 5:24), Judith (Judith 15:9-10), Mary of Nazareth (Luke 1.42) "( study of Mariology )

Among the many documents that relate to Nineteenth Century Jael is significant pastoral letter of the Bishop of Piacenza written during the first Jubilee (1879) defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin Mary: "The strong Judith, tents impurity Holofernes, the Serbian fearless candor, the pretty Esther, ruled by the law of death, promulgated by King Ahasuerus against the Jewish nation, the invincible Jael, Sisera save by revenge, are all images, or Beloved, they use to express the Holy Fathers as the pure soul of Mary was preserved from the contagion of original sin, and you called, with admirable variety of expressions: pink always thriving, ever blessed the earth ...".

The official interpretation of Sisera Mayr is reassuring, but has ignored the political, historical, social , and the libretto of Mayr (for historical background see for example, John Robison, Proofs of a Conspiracy Against All the Religions and governments of Europe, Edinburgh, 1797). According to the Bavarian Christian-lit close to the positions Wunsch Ernst Mayr's "visionaries and the prophets were impostors" (see the booklet Horus, quoted in Goethe, Mozart and the enlightened brothers Arché Mayr ).

St. Augustine long before he had worried about the judges in his questions, misunderstandings that arise "when Jael, the woman who killed Sisera, Barak had spoken with him tried, the same is it written that Barak came to her, care must be taken that when the Scripture says that a man entered a woman does not follow that we should think that it was also made to lie with her. Indeed the Scripture says very often: it came from wanting to understand just who joined carnally with her. Here, then, came into her expression is used in the proper sense, that is, entered his house, not because this sentence is meant with the carnal. "
In the text of the Oratory of Mayr Jael is even an adulteress, because for the illuminated books of the Old Testament as "pure invention" (ibid.), can change in meaning:

Deborah
Go into the valley
leverage the tent where Eber, your spouse ...
[Translation from the Latin text]

Jael
who said his words!
Am a woman, I'm curious ...

Then meet Sisera:

Jael
Believe, believe in the loving heart;
please come, come to me ...

Sisera
Vai, you tempt me ...

Jael
Friend and lover, we bring you Jael ...

Sisera
Come, dear next to me;
feel your heart is calling you
thee, O beloved, ever loved ...

Jael: Rest ...

Sisera: With me ...

Jael: With you ...

Mayr points out in music, a thousand memories of Mozart, the perfidy of women and the heroic character of Sisera, which calls the heavens and God:

Sisera
Flee ...

Jael
Remains ungrateful! Listen ...

Sisera
On my honor as a soldier
reminds me of the war ...

Jael
Oh no, I implore you ...
Your life is precious m'è
more than my life itself ...

Sisera
Oh dear
(Where's my reason!)

Jael
Heart infidel ...

Sisera
No, not what you think
I ask for help to you, O heavens
Oh God, I burn and rave ...

Gives Sisera, Jael and has plans to betray him:

Jael
Sisera fell in my laces
and adores me, shortly
I hope I give in to sleep
and no longer breathe ...

Jael kills Sisera as in the rite of initiation into the degree of Master of the Illuminati emphasized more strongly in the orchestra since the Oratory: three shots of the ritual first and second violins, divided into triple figures, which Mayr, Illuminati, has drawn from ceremonies of the Order (for a popular version of the ritual, just read The Hiram Key, written by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas, published by Mondadori, Milan 1997).

XXVI. Jahel of accompanied recitative, and Barak Debbora (Sisera was killed by Joel with a mallet)
MIDI (5 k)

arrangement by Anna Trombetta and Luca Bianchini
© Italian Opera

"The most striking visual effect given by the music is certainly the killing of the protagonist by Jahel. Jahel In grim scene, with three hammers, sticks a stake through his temple of the sleeping Sisera. This moment is made of strong arcs ".
PierAngelo Pelucchi
(In Mayr-Studien, Monaco and Salzburg, 1995)

In the ritual the traitor Jubelum lit with a hammer strikes the temple of Hiram, who died at the hands of three conspirators, symbols of ignorance (in Mayr Sisera was Elkanah), ambition (Dina) and falsehood (Jael).

Elkanah (folly) invites Sisera to enter the tent of Jael:

Sisera answers:
Who speaks to me? Who is it?
Fool! The echo serves me correctly.

Dina instead, along with Elkanah, offers him a vessel worthy of the principles (so says the Song) and "filled milk", "perfect gift" to tease his ambition (in the Bible's milk is also a sign of glory, because in that day, the milk will flow in the hills).

It also flatters the hero Jael:

Jael
He fears a man so powerful?
So fear is not worthy of you.
Sleep, my life ...

The Sisera by Giuseppe Maria Foppa, and Johann Simon Mayr distorts the biblical sense. Sisera was the moral winner, whose figure is rehabilitated, after he died because they suffered a cruel deception. The final three rounds are slower and marked, because the first to rise (this is the joyful side of the ceremony) the enlightened Master gets three shots on the symbolic temple.
The notes of the triumphant final chorus resonate subtly ironic, as it is ironic parody of the Air Sisera written on another occasion the same Mayr. In the first version of the Oratory, the choir has not been to music (Anja Morgenstern, Das Oratorium venezianische Sisera, Studien Mayr, Johann Simon Mayr und Venedig, Monaco, Salzburg, Ingolstadt, Germany, November 1998).

Jael collecting the "right" reward:

Barak:
Command or woman, what you want:
obey. You fill it with wealth ...

The name of Jael, the booklet states, will be adored forever.

WORKS
other authors on the same biblical argument:

Sisera
libretto by Giovanni Francesco priest Savar
music?
Bologna 1672

Deborah and Jael
libretto by Giovanni Battista De Santis
music by Antonio Draghi
Vienna, Chapel Royal, 1676.

The Debbora warrior prophetess, Oratory
music by Giuseppe Vignola
Naples, the Spanish Congregation of the Holy Trinity, in October 1711.

Deborah , oratorio
book of Samuel Humphhreys
music by George Frideric Handel
London, King's Theatre, 1733.

The Debbora, Oratory
music by Ignacio Conti
Vienna, 1734.

Debbora, sacred Essay
music by Matteo Capranica
Cesena, 1742.

Debbora and Jael. winners of Sisera, sacred Action
libretto by Domenico Ravizza
music by Giuseppe Ventura
Chieti, 1744.

Debbora Prophetissa, Drama sacrum
libretto by Pietro Chiari
music by Baldassare Galuppi
Venice, Hospital of the Incurable, 1772.

Debbora and Sisera, Action for sacred music,
libretto by Carlo Sernicola
music by Pietro Guglielmi
Naples, Teatro San Carlo, Lent 1788.

Deborah and Sisera, the sacred drama in two acts
libretto by Carlo Sernicola
music by Leopold Antonin Kozeluh
Vienna, Hoftheater, the spring of 1789.

Sisera , Oratory
libretto by Giuseppe Maria Foppa
music by Johann Simon Mayr
Venice, Academy of St. Lazarus the Beggar, 1793.

Debbora, Oratory
music of Jean-François Le Seur
Paris 1828.

Deborah and Sisera, Opera
libretto by Kvapil and Mosenthal
music by Joseph Bohuslav
Prague, National Theatre, 1893

Deborah and Jael , Drama in three Acts
music and libretto by Ildebrando Pizzetti
Milan, Teatro alla Scala, 1922.

MIDI and MP3 files of Sisera Mayr

The libretto by Giovanni Simone Mayr Sisera

Deborah Georg Friedrich Handel

Deborah and Jael Ildebrando Pizzetti

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